Amphibians And Reptiles Of New Mexico //TOP\\ Free 18
PERMIT required for live possession and sale of all wild and captive-bred protected species, which are game, furbearing animals, endangered and threatened species, songbirds and primarily insect-eating birds, hawks, vultures and owls, and native reptiles and amphibians.
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BANS killing, selling or exporting of horned toads.BANS take of federal and state endangered and threatened species.PERMIT (Reptile and Amphibians Commercial Collecting Permit) required for commercial taking or capturing of all native free-ranging reptiles and amphibians (protected nongame) along with anyone with annual bag limit or more than 50 individuals with limited take.
1915. The reptiles and amphibians collected in northeastern Nevada by the Walker-Newcomb Expedition of the University of Michigan. (With A.G. Ruthven). Occ. Paps. Mus. Zool., Univ. Mich., (8):1-33.
1936. Ichthyologia et Herpetologia Americana. A guide to an exhibition in the William L. Clements Library illustrating the development of knowledge of American fishes, amphibians and reptiles. (With H.H. Peckham and C.L. Hubbs). Amer. Soc. of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists, 19th Annual Meeting. Univ. Mich. Press, Ann Arbor, 22 pp.
1937. Some amphibians and reptiles from Tamaulipas. Pp. 301-304. In The Geology and Biology of the San Carlos Mountains, Tamaulipas, Mexico, Univ. Mich. Studies, Sci. Ser., Vol. 12, Univ. Mich. Press.
In July, waters from the sky return to this typically arid region. What seemed dead in June's sweltering heat gradually comes back to life. The dun shafts of ocotillo plants burst with green leaves, and agaves bloom. Billions of ants take to the air in nuptial flights to mate, eggs of trillions more insects hatch, and grubs under logs pupate into shimmering beetles. This arthropodal feast brings out countless amphibians and reptiles, birds and mammals, and clouds of bats thick enough to block out the starlight.
Amphibians and non-avian reptiles represent a significant proportion of terrestrial vertebrates, however knowledge of their viruses is not proportional to their abundance. Many amphibians and reptiles have strict habitual environments and localised populations and are vulnerable to viral outbreaks and potential elimination as a result. We sought to identify viruses that were hidden in amphibian and reptile metatranscriptomic data by screening 235 RNA-sequencing datasets from a 122 species covering 25 countries. We identified 26 novel viruses and eight previously characterised viruses from fifteen different viral families. Twenty-five viruses had RNA genomes with identity to Arteriviridae, Tobaniviridae, Hantaviridae, Rhabdoviridae, Astroviridae, Arenaviridae, Hepeviridae, Picornaviridae, Orthomyxoviridae, Reoviridae, Flaviviridae and Caliciviridae. In addition to RNA viruses, we also screened datasets for DNA viral transcripts, which are commonly excluded from transcriptomic analysis. We identified ten DNA viruses with identity to Papillomaviridae, Parvoviridae, Circoviridae and Adomaviridae. With the addition of these viruses, we expand the global amphibian and reptile virome and identify new potentially pathogenic viruses that could challenge populations. We speculate that amphibian viruses often have simpler genomes than those in amniotes, as in the case of the Secondpapillomavirinae and Orthomyxoviridae viruses identified in this study. In addition, we find evidence of inter-family recombination in RNA viruses, and we also identify new members of the recombinant Adomaviridae family. Overall, we provide insights into the uncharacterised diversity of amphibian and reptile viruses with the aim of improving population management, treatment and conservation into the future.
When considering viral threats to amphibians, ranaviruses, large, enveloped DNA viruses, are considered one of the major ecological factors contributing to global population declines . Nidoviruses, medium-large RNA viruses, are also frequently associated with high-mortality outbreaks in reptiles, for example the Bellinger River turtle was almost rendered extinct in 2015 due to an outbreak likely caused by Bellinger River virus [10, 11]. Parvoviruses and circoviruses, small DNA viruses, have lethal associations in reptiles and fish, and were isolated from bearded dragons following mortality events in 2014 and 2020 . Viral discovery can also improve knowledge of zoonotic reservoirs for pathogens and can help assess animal to human spill-over risks based on geographic location. Reptiles have been implicated as reservoirs of arboviral disease, including West Nile virus and Eastern equine encephalitis virus . By studying circulating viruses in amphibians and reptiles we can better understand both the burden of viruses on these hosts and identify viruses with the potential to host-switch within an ecosystem.
Prior to the popularity of next-generation sequencing, knowledge of amphibian and reptile RNA viruses was restricted to the Paramyxoviridae, Retroviridae, Caliciviridae, Togaviridae, Picornaviridae, Flaviviridae and Reoviridae families, only seven of the >150 families that now exist . Since then, representatives from viral families including Coronaviridae, Astroviridae, Tobaniviridae, Rhabdoviridae, Bornaviridae, Hantaviridae, Hepeviridae, Arteriviridae and Arenaviridae were found to infect reptiles and amphibians . The identification of these novel viruses greatly highlights the unsampled diversity of viruses yet to be found, and the scope of pathogens that could threaten these species. Knowledge of viruses can aid diagnosis of disease outbreaks and assists the conservation of threatened populations. Studying the host range and genetic organisation of novel viruses can also inform us about the evolutionary mechanisms underpinning the evolution of modern viral families. This information is useful for predicting potential future viral disease outbreaks and designing targeted preventative measures.
This study aimed to identify and characterise novel DNA and RNA viruses from amphibian and reptile RNA-Sequencing datasets using a high-throughput viral discovery screen. Two hundred and thirty five publicly available datasets representing a geographically and taxonomically diverse selection of species were used to encompass the diversity of amphibians and reptiles. We also looked for evolutionary insights into these novel viruses using phylogenetic analysis and identifying evidence of recombination.
We aimed to expand the amphibian and reptile virome using viral discovery to identify DNA and RNA viruses hidden in metatranscriptomic datasets. We sampled 235 datasets from 25 countries and 122 different species to encompass a diversity of amphibians and reptiles (Fig. 1 and Supplementary Table 1). We identified a total of 26 novel viruses and nine previously identified viruses and expand the known diversity of viruses and our understanding of their evolution.
Many viral families or genera traditionally thought to be exclusively associated with mammals also infect reptiles and amphibians [6, 23, 24]. We identified reptile-associated Arenaviridae, and Lyssavirus viruses which, until recently, were thought to be endotherm-specific (Table 1) [25, 26]. These reptile viruses are phylogenetically basal to endotherm viruses and have few close relatives (Supplementary Figs. 1 and 4). It is likely that these viruses are the first representatives of much broader clades, genera and subfamilies of viruses which have diversified within reptiles.
Studies based on RNA-sequencing normally ignore or fail to identify DNA viruses, however in this study we identify genes from ten DNA viruses through translation of the RNA dataset with subsequent searches for DNA viral homologues. In the case of understudied species such as amphibians and reptiles, obtaining maximal information from limited samples is vital, and the presence of DNA virus transcripts in RNA sequencing datasets should not be overlooked.
Co-infection of viruses is common in amphibians and reptiles and provides frequent opportunities for recombination [12, 33]. Recombination often occurs at the junction of the structural and non-structural genes and has occurred ubiquitously throughout viral evolution . The DNA-RNA chimeric viruses cruciviruses and the plant-animal virus hybrids Hepeviridae are two of many viral groups formed through recombination between unrelated viruses [21, 35].
Until recently, pathogen discovery in amphibians and reptiles was focussed on identifying causative agents and associated pathogens during or after severe disease outbreaks. Bellinger river nidovirus, bearded dragon circovirus and chaphamaparvoviruses were all characterised after severe mortality events in reptiles [10, 12]. Diseases are frequently associated with coinfections and may be attributed to complex interactions between multiple pathogens , as in the case of tumours in green turtles . As so little is known about the frequency, distribution and diversity of viruses, it is hard to assess the risk that novel viruses pose. However, understanding the types of viruses that circulate in wild and captive populations is the first step in building a knowledge base for rapid diagnostics during outbreaks. Viruses phylogenetically related to known pathogens including nidoviruses and lyssaviruses from this study can be flagged and studied further to aid in the development of monitoring and prevention strategies to protect vulnerable populations.
Additionally, many small DNA viruses are associated with oncogenesis and neoplasia in animals [55,56,57]. These viruses are well documented in mammals and some birds, however the diversity and pathogenesis